17 equations that changed the world

Ian Stewart compiled an interest summation of 17 equations that practically changed the world

Here are 17 equations:
Pythagoras’s Theorem
In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras’s theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

 
Logarithms
a quantity representing the power to which a fixed number (the base) must be raised to produce a given number.

 
Calculus
the branch of mathematics that deals with the finding and properties of derivatives and integrals of functions, by methods originally based on the summation of infinitesimal differences. The two main types are differential calculus and integral calculus.

 
Law of Gravity
Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

 
The Square Root of Minus One
The “unit” Imaginary Number (the equivalent of 1 for Real Numbers) is √(−1) (the square root of minus one). In mathematics we use i (for imaginary) but in electronics they use j (because “i” already means current, and the next letter after i is j).

 
Euler’s Formula for Polyhedra
This theorem involves Euler’s polyhedral formula (sometimes called Euler’s formula). Today we would state this result as: The number of vertices V, faces F, and edges E in a convex 3-dimensional polyhedron, satisfy V + F – E = 2.

 
Normal Distribution
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution. Normal distributions are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known.

 
Wave Equation
The wave equation is an important second-order linear hyperbolic partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in physics—such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid dynamics.

 
Fourier Transform
a function derived from a given function and representing it by a series of sinusoidal functions.

 
Navier-Stokes Equation
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations /nævˈjeɪ stoʊks/, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid …

 
Maxwell’s Equation
Maxwell’s equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

 
Second Law of Thermodynamics
the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy.

 
Relativity
the dependence of various physical phenomena on relative motion of the observer and the observed objects, especially regarding the nature and behavior of light, space, time, and gravity.

 
Schrodinger’s Equation
After much debate, the wavefunction is now accepted to be a probability distribution. The Schrodinger equation is used to find the allowed energy levels of quantum mechanical systems (such as atoms, or transistors). The associated wavefunction gives the probability of finding the particle at a certain position.

 
Information Theory
the mathematical study of the coding of information in the form of sequences of symbols, impulses, etc., and of how rapidly such information can be transmitted, e.g., through computer circuits or telecommunications channels.

 
Chaos Theory
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focused on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

 
Black-Scholes Equation
In mathematical finance, the Black–Scholes equation is a partial differential equation (PDE) governing the price evolution of a European call or European put under the Black–Scholes model. Broadly speaking, the term may refer to a similar PDE that can be derived for a variety of options, or more generally, derivatives.
 

17 equations that changed the world
17 equations that changed the world

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